Those eight conditions are bed sores, objects left inside the patient during surgery, falls that occur when the patient is in the hospital, blood incompatibility, air embolism, mediastinitis (infection of the area between the lungs, which can happen after a heart bypass surgery), catheter-associated urinary tract infections, and certain bloodstream infections. In addition, several other conditions have been proposed as additions to the list.
The purpose of this change is to provide an incentive for hospitals and health care providers to avoid errors and prevent neglect of patients. If both Medicare and the patient refuse to pay for treatment of a hospital-acquired condition, then the hospital is stuck with the costs, and most hospitals would obviously wish to avoid that.
This is a long-overdue incentive for hospitals to reduce the incidence of these events and injuries which should never happen.