The number of bloodstream infections in intensive care units (ICUs) caused by tubes inserted into major blood vessels decreased significantly between 2001 to 2009, but unacceptably high rates of infection are still occurring for patients in other hospital units and for dialysis patients, government researchers say.
Central lines are tubes that are usually placed in the large veins of the neck or chest to deliver medicines and nutrition. Infections of these lines, which are largely preventable, can become serious problems, with death rates of 12-25%.
An estimated 18,000 ICU central-line infections were recorded in 2009, down from 43,000 in 2001, according to a report by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). This 58% decrease means that in 2009, between 3,000 and 6,000 deaths were prevented and as much as $414 million saved. And if the decrease in these ICU infections was steady from 2001 to 2009, as many as 27,000 lives and as much as $1.8 billion may have been saved.
(Note: These numbers are rough estimates. The 2001 figure of 43,000 infections could have been as low as 27,000 and as high as 67,000.)
According to the CDC, much of the decrease resulted from campaigns to improve techniques for managing the lines in ICUs, where they are most frequently used. Infections involving bacteria such as staphylococcus can be avoided with simple measures like washing hands, wearing sterile gowns and drapes, and following the proper techniques for inserting and maintaining the lines.
However, researchers noted that central line infections still occurred far too often, affecting 80,000 patients a year and killing at least 10,000. In addition, of the 350,000 patients who received dialysis in the U.S. in 2008, about 37,000 suffered central-line infections. Such infections are the second leading cause of hospital stays and death in people on dialysis after cardiovascular problems.
Peter Pronovost, MD of Johns Hopkins Hospital, a pioneer in patient safety, developed the simple “checklist” for using central lines in ICU patients, which was proven in a landmark study in the New England Journal of Medicine to cut the infection risk to close to zero.
Source: The New York Times
You can read an abstract of the study here.